Monitoring of some chemical and biological pollutants in wastewater of Bahr El-Baqar, Bilbies and El-Qalyubia drains in East Delta, Egypt for Irrigation purposes.
Abd El-Al SaffaaS. M, Abd El-Aziz Zienab, H. and El-sayed Suzan, A.
Drains in Eastern Delta region were used for receiving sewage wastewater, drainage water of the fields and industrial effluents. Because of the shortage of irrigation water, such water, is sometimes, used in irrigation of agricultural crops. Therefore, it becomes a serious source of pollution as it contains different contaminants of chemical pollutants, namely, heavy metals and biological pollutants like Salmonella and Shigella. The aim of the present study was to monitor the presence of some serious heavy metals, pathogenic bacteria and nitrate in wastewater of the three drains of Eastern Delta region, in order to assess the degree of pollution in the water of these drains for agricultural purposes.
Data revealed that salinity and sodicity values of the studied drains water samples ranged between 0.98 to 2.53 dS/m and 3.27 to 9.64, respectively. According to USDA diagram, the studied samples are in class C3S1 and C4S2. The data, also, recorded high numbers of saprophytic bacteria (at 22 oC) and parasitic group (at 37 oC), Salmonella and Shigella which were present in three drains wastewater with estimates surpassed the permissible values. Except second branch of Bilbies drain Salmonella and Shigella note detectable. Estimates of BOD and COD, gave variable and high records. BOD values ranged from (70 ppm) for end Bilbies drain to (220 ppm) for third branch of El-Qalyubia drain. Concentrations of COD ranged from (118 ppm) for end El-Qalyubia drain to (262 ppm) for third branch of Bilbies drain, respectively.
Heavy metals concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb in three drains were varied from 0.07 to 0.18, 0.07 to 0.59, < 0.1 to < 0.2 and 0.1 to <1.5 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration levels were for Co and Cd in three drains comparing to maximum permissible levels stated by FAO (2017) 0.05 Co and 0.01 Cd ppm. While Pb and Ni levels were lowest than the maximum permissible levels stated by FAO (2017), (Pb, 5 ppm and Ni,0.2 ppm). Concentrations of NO3- were ranged 28.98 to 54.74 ppm in end Bilbies drain and first branch of El-Qalyubia drain. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations in three drains of Eastern Delta, Egypt exceed the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (1991) maximum contaminant level for drinking water of 10 ppm.
Results of the present study, reveals that the wastewater of these drains are highly dangerous on human health and the environment, when used as it is without good treatment. So, these wastewaters must be remediated from such contaminants.