Some heavy metal contents in surface water and sediment as a pollution index of El-Manzala Lake, Egypt
M. E. Goher ,M. H. Abdo, W.A. Bayoumy, T. Y. Mansour El-Ashkar
El-Manzala Lake is one of most important lake in north Delta of Egypt. It is exposed to huge amounts of serious pollutants especially heavy metals. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the heavy metals in water and sediment of the lake. Accordingly, Metal index (MI) and pollution index (PI) were calculated to assess the contaminations of the lake water with the metals named Fe 2, Mn 2, Cu 2, Zn 2, Pb 2, and Cd 2. MI and PI values confirm that most sites of aquatic utilizations are highly polluted with the mentioned metals. Four Pollution Indices were used for the environmental assessment of Lake sediment. The indices included three single indices, Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Contamination Factor (CF). While the fourth, Pollution Load Index (PLI) was an integrated index. The pollution indexes confirmed that the Lake sediment was contaminated with these elements. This is attributed to discharging of the effluents of different industrial wastes into the lake.